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Winfield Hill
Guest

Sat Jan 12, 2019 9:45 pm   



dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote...
Quote:

Winfield Hill wrote:

There's very little in the signal path. And the 20ns delay to
*the MOSFET output* is about as fast as you'll find. My only
complaint is that the FETs are too big, too much capacitance.
When switching a 50-ohm cable-matching output resistor, a low
70-milli-ohm Ron is serious overkill.

Hey Win, here's a smaller-sized version of the same concept,
driver-plus-GaN on a chip:
https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Navitas%20Semi%20PDFs/NV6113%20Datasheet%20(FINAL)%208-28-18.pdf


Wow, Navitas NV6113, GaN, 200V/ns, only $3.38 at Digi-Key. And
Octopart doesn't even know about them yet! It looks hard to get
heat out of the package, they say limited to 2MHz switching rate.


--
Thanks,
- Win

Winfield Hill
Guest

Sat Jan 12, 2019 9:45 pm   



Winfield Hill wrote...
Quote:

dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote...

Winfield Hill wrote:

There's very little in the signal path. And the 20ns delay to
*the MOSFET output* is about as fast as you'll find. My only
complaint is that the FETs are too big, too much capacitance.
When switching a 50-ohm cable-matching output resistor, a low
70-milli-ohm Ron is serious overkill.

Hey Win, here's a smaller-sized version of the same concept,
driver-plus-GaN on a chip:
https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Navitas%20Semi%20PDFs/NV6113%20Datasheet%20(FINAL)%208-28-18.pdf

Wow, Navitas NV6113, GaN, 200V/ns, only $3.38 at Digi-Key. And
Octopart doesn't even know about them yet! It looks hard to get
heat out of the package, they say limited to 2MHz switching rate.


Hah, you have to register, complete with password, just to see
a product list. Well, at least Digi-Key shows three single-FET
switches available now. But their two-FET half-bridge would be
far more interesting to those of us who like to make HV pulsers.

BTW, WRT their stated 2MHz operation spec, the Co(er) spec, which
is 16pF at 400V, that's only P = C V^2 f = 5 watts at 2MHz. But,
oops, with Rth-ja = 50C/W on 1-in-sq copper, that's dT = 250C.


--
Thanks,
- Win


Guest

Sun Jan 13, 2019 1:45 am   



On Saturday, January 12, 2019 at 3:20:53 PM UTC-5, Winfield Hill wrote:
Quote:
Winfield Hill wrote...

dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote...

Winfield Hill wrote:

There's very little in the signal path. And the 20ns delay to
*the MOSFET output* is about as fast as you'll find. My only
complaint is that the FETs are too big, too much capacitance.
When switching a 50-ohm cable-matching output resistor, a low
70-milli-ohm Ron is serious overkill.

Hey Win, here's a smaller-sized version of the same concept,
driver-plus-GaN on a chip:
https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Navitas%20Semi%20PDFs/NV6113%20Datasheet%20(FINAL)%208-28-18.pdf

Wow, Navitas NV6113, GaN, 200V/ns, only $3.38 at Digi-Key. And
Octopart doesn't even know about them yet! It looks hard to get
heat out of the package, they say limited to 2MHz switching rate.

Hah, you have to register, complete with password, just to see
a product list. Well, at least Digi-Key shows three single-FET
switches available now. But their two-FET half-bridge would be
far more interesting to those of us who like to make HV pulsers.

BTW, WRT their stated 2MHz operation spec, the Co(er) spec, which
is 16pF at 400V, that's only P = C V^2 f = 5 watts at 2MHz. But,
oops, with Rth-ja = 50C/W on 1-in-sq copper, that's dT = 250C.


--
Thanks,
- Win


I get 16pF x 1 MHz x 400V^2 = 2.56W

But, that's assuming the driver dissipates power in both directions,
which isn't true. When the FET is off and something else is charging
Co, the driver dissipation is essentially zero. So, the actual 2MHz /
400V dynamic dissipation, unloaded, should be about 1.3 watts, right?

Cheers,
James Arthur

George Herold
Guest

Sun Jan 13, 2019 4:45 am   



On Saturday, January 12, 2019 at 12:42:03 PM UTC-5, dagmarg...@yahoo.com wrote:
Quote:
On Saturday, January 12, 2019 at 11:00:55 AM UTC-5, George Herold wrote:
On Saturday, January 12, 2019 at 12:58:21 AM UTC-5, dagmarg...@yahoo.com wrote:
On Friday, January 11, 2019 at 8:53:41 PM UTC-5, George Herold wrote:
On Friday, January 11, 2019 at 3:05:14 PM UTC-5, dagmarg...@yahoo.com wrote:
On Friday, January 11, 2019 at 12:44:48 AM UTC-5, Phil Hobbs wrote:
On 1/10/19 11:46 PM, dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote:
RF MOSFETs. They're built for linear operation. At a glance, they seem

Welcome back! You've been a bit scarce since last spring, iirc.

Cheers

Phil Hobbs

Hi Phil!

I've been doing some pretty fun things, but hobby-level
electronics, nothing I thought would be very interesting
for sed. I do still peek in to see what's happening.
James!, As a tadpole here on SED I'd love to hear/see any
of your hobby level 'fun' stuff.
The fare has been a little thin here.

I'm doing this high side switch driving a heater to ground.
Looking at the circuit I got to work, I've got low pass filters
everywhere, with little understanding... which happens sometimes
when you're just trying to get something working.

I think my circuit was missing some resistance on the inverting input.
(I tried to do some asci art, but too much of a Friday night buzz. :^)

High side GS resistor (on pfet) that is turned off by
level sift 'grounded' base npn, with emitter resistor
driven by opamp. A resistor divider senses drain/load
voltage-compares that to error (in opamp) which drives
emitter R.

George H.

Like this?

Q1
V+ >--+-----+-. .-------+--------.
| | ^ | | |
.-. .- - - | |
Rgs | | | .-. |
'-' | | | Rload |
| | '-' |
'----+ | |
| | |
|/ === |
+5v >--| Q2 |
|>. .-.
| | | R1
.-. '-'
Re | | /| |
'-' /+|-----------+
| / | |
'-----< | .-.
\ | | | R2
\-|-- Vref '-'
\| |
===

That looks like an oscillator. :-)

Cheers,
James Arthur

Prezactly! I killed the oscillation with a nF across R2(10k) and
100 nF! of feedback C.
Q1
V+ >--+-----+-. .-------+---------------.
| | ^ | | |
.-. .- - - | |
Rgs | | | .-. |
'-' | | | Rload |
| | '-' |
'----+ | |
| | |
|/ === |
+5v >--| Q2 |
|>. .-.
| | | R1
.-. '-'
Re | | /| |
'-' /+|------------------+-------.
| / | | |
+-----< | .-. ___
| \ | Rcomp | | R2 ___ C2 1nF
| \-|--+-/\/\/-- Vrf '-' |
| \| | | ====
'-----||-----' ===
100nF

Is there some better way to compensate?
It's a heater thing so slow is fine.

Thanks for the nice pic, I certainly miss your presence.

George H.

C2 across R2 is anti-helpful. The problem, in lay terms,
is that your op-amp is reacting very quickly, but to old news.

That is, it's over-reacting to feedback that is delayed in
time. So you're creating a situation where you are already
driving Q2 appropriately, but Q1's output hasn't moved yet,
and your op-amp then tries to drive Q2 even harder even though
its existing drive level was already perfect (if it had only
waited long enough to see). C2 makes that worse.

The easy solution is to eliminate C2 and add in Rcomp. Rcomp,
sufficiently large, slows the op-amp response until the
feedback delay is inconsequential in comparison to the op-amp's
now-gradual corrections. In that way, the op-amp is reacting
to a realistic representation of the results of that op-amp's
last output, and can make appropriate new adjustments.

Another way is to accelerate the feedback to the op-amp
so that the op-amp's information isn't so stale, such
as with feed-forward compensation. Here, that would mean
putting C2 across R1. But if you don't need the maximum
speed possible, just slow down the op-amp. It's less ticklish.

Slowed down, the op-amp will make corrections gradually, then
have plenty of time to see the effects of those corrections,
then make even more corrections. Tada! that's also known as
'closed-loop feedback'. :-)

Did that make sense?

Yeah thanks James. I thought I needed some inverting R.
I need something for the feedback cap to 'work' against.

George H.
Quote:

Cheers,
James Arthur


George Herold
Guest

Sun Jan 13, 2019 5:45 am   



On Saturday, January 12, 2019 at 1:38:33 PM UTC-5, John Larkin wrote:
Quote:
On Sat, 12 Jan 2019 10:17:47 -0800 (PST), dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com
wrote:

On Saturday, January 12, 2019 at 11:57:16 AM UTC-5, John Larkin wrote:
On Fri, 11 Jan 2019 21:58:18 -0800 (PST), dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com
wrote:

On Friday, January 11, 2019 at 8:53:41 PM UTC-5, George Herold wrote:
On Friday, January 11, 2019 at 3:05:14 PM UTC-5, dagmarg...@yahoo.com wrote:
On Friday, January 11, 2019 at 12:44:48 AM UTC-5, Phil Hobbs wrote:
On 1/10/19 11:46 PM, dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote:
RF MOSFETs. They're built for linear operation. At a glance, they seem

Welcome back! You've been a bit scarce since last spring, iirc.

Cheers

Phil Hobbs

Hi Phil!

I've been doing some pretty fun things, but hobby-level
electronics, nothing I thought would be very interesting
for sed. I do still peek in to see what's happening.
James!, As a tadpole here on SED I'd love to hear/see any
of your hobby level 'fun' stuff.
The fare has been a little thin here.

I'm doing this high side switch driving a heater to ground.
Looking at the circuit I got to work, I've got low pass filters
everywhere, with little understanding... which happens sometimes
when you're just trying to get something working.

I think my circuit was missing some resistance on the inverting input.
(I tried to do some asci art, but too much of a Friday night buzz. :^)

High side GS resistor (on pfet) that is turned off by
level sift 'grounded' base npn, with emitter resistor
driven by opamp. A resistor divider senses drain/load
voltage-compares that to error (in opamp) which drives
emitter R.

George H.

Like this?

Q1
V+ >--+-----+-. .-------+--------.
| | ^ | | |
.-. .- - - | |
Rgs | | | .-. |
'-' | | | Rload |
| | '-' |
'----+ | |
| | |
|/ === |
+5v >--| Q2 |
|>. .-.
| | | R1
.-. '-'
Re | | /| |
'-' /+|-----------+
| / | |
'-----< | .-.
\ | | | R2
\-|-- Vref '-'
\| |
===

That looks like an oscillator. :-)

Cheers,
James Arthur

Is that a linear voltage regulator? There was mention of a highside
switch.

I took it as a linear system but you're right, George said "switch."

If he literally meant hard-switching Q1, that's a different kettle
of fish. A PWM scheme with a slow feedback loop might make more
sense for that.

Cheers,
James

Driving heaters from linear amps is messy. There's the square-law
linearity issue, and general inefficiency.

PWM is better for heater control.

Right, this is going to run at a constant temp
against a mostly constant background... So only some limited power
range. (at least that's my hope. :^)

George H.
Quote:


--

John Larkin Highland Technology, Inc

lunatic fringe electronics



Guest

Mon Jan 14, 2019 12:45 am   



On Sunday, January 13, 2019 at 6:13:19 PM UTC-5, Clifford Heath wrote:
Quote:
On 13/1/19 6:55 am, Winfield Hill wrote:
dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote...

Winfield Hill wrote:

There's very little in the signal path. And the 20ns delay to
*the MOSFET output* is about as fast as you'll find. My only
complaint is that the FETs are too big, too much capacitance.
When switching a 50-ohm cable-matching output resistor, a low
70-milli-ohm Ron is serious overkill.

Hey Win, here's a smaller-sized version of the same concept,
driver-plus-GaN on a chip:
https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Navitas%20Semi%20PDFs/NV6113%20Datasheet%20(FINAL)%208-28-18.pdf

Wow, Navitas NV6113, GaN, 200V/ns, only $3.38 at Digi-Key. And
Octopart doesn't even know about them yet! It looks hard to get
heat out of the package, they say limited to 2MHz switching rate.

50C/W - ugly. That would practically limit you to about 2 amps average,
at 300mOhm. That's just not... special.


Au contraire! Two amps is way more than I need, and I much appreciate
the reduced capacitances. (Not all of us are trying to drive big metal
all the time, or launch EMI out into space. :)

There are lots of big wide-gap devices for big-power stuff. But we
don't have many choices yet when it comes to making a dinky lil'
signal generator.


Cheers,
James Arthur

Clifford Heath
Guest

Mon Jan 14, 2019 12:45 am   



On 13/1/19 6:55 am, Winfield Hill wrote:
Quote:
dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote...

Winfield Hill wrote:

There's very little in the signal path. And the 20ns delay to
*the MOSFET output* is about as fast as you'll find. My only
complaint is that the FETs are too big, too much capacitance.
When switching a 50-ohm cable-matching output resistor, a low
70-milli-ohm Ron is serious overkill.

Hey Win, here's a smaller-sized version of the same concept,
driver-plus-GaN on a chip:
https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Navitas%20Semi%20PDFs/NV6113%20Datasheet%20(FINAL)%208-28-18.pdf

Wow, Navitas NV6113, GaN, 200V/ns, only $3.38 at Digi-Key. And
Octopart doesn't even know about them yet! It looks hard to get
heat out of the package, they say limited to 2MHz switching rate.


50C/W - ugly. That would practically limit you to about 2 amps average,
at 300mOhm. That's just not... special.

John Larkin
Guest

Mon Jan 14, 2019 2:45 am   



On Mon, 14 Jan 2019 10:13:11 +1100, Clifford Heath
<no.spam_at_please.net> wrote:

Quote:
On 13/1/19 6:55 am, Winfield Hill wrote:
dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com wrote...

Winfield Hill wrote:

There's very little in the signal path. And the 20ns delay to
*the MOSFET output* is about as fast as you'll find. My only
complaint is that the FETs are too big, too much capacitance.
When switching a 50-ohm cable-matching output resistor, a low
70-milli-ohm Ron is serious overkill.

Hey Win, here's a smaller-sized version of the same concept,
driver-plus-GaN on a chip:
https://media.digikey.com/pdf/Data%20Sheets/Navitas%20Semi%20PDFs/NV6113%20Datasheet%20(FINAL)%208-28-18.pdf

Wow, Navitas NV6113, GaN, 200V/ns, only $3.38 at Digi-Key. And
Octopart doesn't even know about them yet! It looks hard to get
heat out of the package, they say limited to 2MHz switching rate.

50C/W - ugly. That would practically limit you to about 2 amps average,
at 300mOhm. That's just not... special.


It might make sense thermally to parallel a few smaller parts, EPC
GaNs or these things.



--

John Larkin Highland Technology, Inc

lunatic fringe electronics

Gerhard Hoffmann
Guest

Thu Jan 17, 2019 11:45 pm   



Am 12.01.19 um 06:39 schrieb dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com:

Quote:
One of my problems, currently, is that most of the high-voltage fancy
FETs are monstrous compared to my needs, so even though their figures-
of-merit Ron vs. Qg are worlds better than the older tech stuff, the
fact that they're 20x over-sized for my application makes them slower
than an appropriately-sized MOSFET.

Even the most nimble GaN garbage truck FET still isn't as gamely as a
silicon itty bitty unicycle FET.


A bit smaller than the other transistors that were mentioned,
but nevertheless DC to 6 GHz:

< https://www.mouser.de/datasheet/2/90/ghv27030s-947886.pdf >

A nice driver, at least :-)

Cheers,
Gerhard


Guest

Wed Jan 30, 2019 6:45 am   



On Thursday, January 17, 2019 at 4:52:13 PM UTC-5, Gerhard Hoffmann wrote:
Quote:
Am 12.01.19 um 06:39 schrieb dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com:

One of my problems, currently, is that most of the high-voltage fancy
FETs are monstrous compared to my needs, so even though their figures-
of-merit Ron vs. Qg are worlds better than the older tech stuff, the
fact that they're 20x over-sized for my application makes them slower
than an appropriately-sized MOSFET.

Even the most nimble GaN garbage truck FET still isn't as gamely as a
silicon itty bitty unicycle FET.

A bit smaller than the other transistors that were mentioned,
but nevertheless DC to 6 GHz:

https://www.mouser.de/datasheet/2/90/ghv27030s-947886.pdf

A nice driver, at least :-)

Cheers,
Gerhard


Wow, that's one beast of a driver ;-)

Cheers,
James Arthur

John Larkin
Guest

Wed Jan 30, 2019 9:45 pm   



On Tue, 29 Jan 2019 20:58:02 -0800 (PST), dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com
wrote:

Quote:
On Thursday, January 17, 2019 at 4:52:13 PM UTC-5, Gerhard Hoffmann wrote:
Am 12.01.19 um 06:39 schrieb dagmargoodboat_at_yahoo.com:

One of my problems, currently, is that most of the high-voltage fancy
FETs are monstrous compared to my needs, so even though their figures-
of-merit Ron vs. Qg are worlds better than the older tech stuff, the
fact that they're 20x over-sized for my application makes them slower
than an appropriately-sized MOSFET.

Even the most nimble GaN garbage truck FET still isn't as gamely as a
silicon itty bitty unicycle FET.

A bit smaller than the other transistors that were mentioned,
but nevertheless DC to 6 GHz:

https://www.mouser.de/datasheet/2/90/ghv27030s-947886.pdf

A nice driver, at least :-)

Cheers,
Gerhard

Wow, that's one beast of a driver ;-)

Cheers,
James Arthur


It's a typical RF data sheet: primitive DC specs and no DC curves at
all.

The eval boards just bring out the gate bias as a pin and assume users
will magically know how to set that.



--

John Larkin Highland Technology, Inc
picosecond timing precision measurement

jlarkin att highlandtechnology dott com
http://www.highlandtechnology.com

whit3rd
Guest

Wed Jan 30, 2019 11:45 pm   



On Wednesday, January 30, 2019 at 11:48:35 AM UTC-8, John Larkin wrote:

Quote:
The eval boards just bring out the gate bias as a pin and assume users
will magically know how to set that.


Yeah, crank it up til it emits magic smoke, then twenty percent
less...

John Larkin
Guest

Thu Jan 31, 2019 12:45 am   



On Wed, 30 Jan 2019 14:23:02 -0800 (PST), whit3rd <whit3rd_at_gmail.com>
wrote:

Quote:
On Wednesday, January 30, 2019 at 11:48:35 AM UTC-8, John Larkin wrote:

The eval boards just bring out the gate bias as a pin and assume users
will magically know how to set that.

Yeah, crank it up til it emits magic smoke, then twenty percent
less...


It's not obvious what polarity the bias should be.


--

John Larkin Highland Technology, Inc
picosecond timing precision measurement

jlarkin att highlandtechnology dott com
http://www.highlandtechnology.com

Gerhard Hoffmann
Guest

Thu Jan 31, 2019 7:45 pm   



Am 31.01.19 um 14:15 schrieb 698839253X6D445TD_at_nospam.org:

Quote:

In this app note, they mention that they have pretty accurate models


https://www.wolfspeed.com/downloads/dl/file/id/847/product/159/load_pull_validation_of_large_signal_cree_gan_field_effect_transis
tor_fet_model.pdf


but it takes a harmonic balance simulator, so el cheapo LTspice won't
cut it. Buy a copy of ADS, for 100K +-.

regards, Gerhard

Yea,
well I thought :
'Must be extremely nonlinear or large production spread else they would publish it'.


No, just the opposite. The only important market for these is cell phone
base stations and to avoid spectral regrowth and for efficiency reasons
they need at least Doherty amplifiers, preferably with a monitoring
receiver and active predistortion. Just take a look at ADI's fastest
ADCs with GHz sample rates and what they are made for.

You cannot make that with LTspice, it takes ADS or Microwave office.
The data sheets are just teasers, you don't get far without their
engineering pack.

I once did some design work on a base station, regretfully on it's
CPU and not the RF section. The customer made it clear that every ¤
on the BOM would have to be multiplied by 10 Meg over the product
lifetime.
Even Xilinx insisted they would never ever lose the design-in on price.
Shocking, those numbers. Even Jörg would have felt challenged.

Quote:
So I erased the pdf, after all I have this:
http://panteltje.com/pub/spectrian_2.4-GHz_linear_top_view_IMG_4576.JPG
2.4 GHz 75 watt linear, was only 99$ on ebay
https://www.ebay.com/itm/75W-Spectrian-Linear-RF-Amplifier-Board-2-3-2-35-GHz-18dBg-24-26V-/223351579252?oid=221556214361
the idea is to use it for ATV to the Es'hail-2 sat one of these days..


You could have got mine. I bought it for AO-40, the one with the strong
elliptical orbit. When it turned out that it would never fly, the
amplifier strip disappeared somewhere in the basement.
One of my worst investments.

73, Gerhard


Guest

Fri Feb 01, 2019 10:45 am   



Gerhard Hoffmann wrote
Quote:
Am 31.01.19 um 14:15 schrieb 698839253X6D445TD_at_nospam.org:


In this app note, they mention that they have pretty accurate models



https://www.wolfspeed.com/downloads/dl/file/id/847/product/159/load_pull_validation_of_large_signal_cree_gan_field_effect_transis
tor_fet_model.pdf


but it takes a harmonic balance simulator, so el cheapo LTspice won't
cut it. Buy a copy of ADS, for 100K +-.

regards, Gerhard

Yea,
well I thought :
'Must be extremely nonlinear or large production spread else they would publish it'.


No, just the opposite. The only important market for these is cell phone
base stations and to avoid spectral regrowth and for efficiency reasons
they need at least Doherty amplifiers, preferably with a monitoring
receiver and active predistortion. Just take a look at ADI's fastest
ADCs with GHz sample rates and what they are made for.


OK, but I wrote that because you never know if they read this group and would then publish it ;-)


Quote:
You cannot make that with LTspice, it takes ADS or Microwave office.
The data sheets are just teasers, you don't get far without their
engineering pack.


I need to get some experience with those FETS, really.
There is a lot of those new parts that I have no hand on experience with yet,
not needed those till now.



Quote:
I once did some design work on a base station, regretfully on it's
CPU and not the RF section. The customer made it clear that every ¤
on the BOM would have to be multiplied by 10 Meg over the product
lifetime.
Even Xilinx insisted they would never ever lose the design-in on price.
Shocking, those numbers. Even Jörg would have felt challenged.


Many years ago, eh 2010 to be precise, I bought a "super-conductor technologies super-filter"
on ebay for a few hundred dollars from the US, it came from a cellphone tower.
http://panteltje.com/pub/super_filter/super_filter_front_plate_img_2576.jpg
https://www.ebay.com/itm/220707865078

It has a band filter made with a super-conductor (around 800 MHz or so it is?) cooled
by a Sterling cooler, and a lot of nice RF stuff for that band, RF relays, RF preamps, attenuators, ...
I bought it for the Sterling cooler, that alone is 12k $ new, to cool cameras to get lower noise.
Condensation is always a problem, but also the thing is great for all sorts of experiments,
bought a CSSP-YLME YBCO-123 Disk from can-superconductors.com...
Make your own liquid air...
http://panteltje.com/pub/cryo/
http://panteltje.com/pub/super_filter/super_filter_cryo_cooler_img_2545.jpg

The actual super-conducting filter is in a large dewar, that the Sterling cooler sticks into:
http://panteltje.com/pub/super_filter/super_filter_dewar_img_2557.jpg
http://panteltje.com/pub/super_filter/super_filter_connection_panel_img_2522.jpg
http://panteltje.com/pub/super_filter/super_filter_top_boards_img_2573.jpg


Quote:
So I erased the pdf, after all I have this:
http://panteltje.com/pub/spectrian_2.4-GHz_linear_top_view_IMG_4576.JPG
2.4 GHz 75 watt linear, was only 99$ on ebay
https://www.ebay.com/itm/75W-Spectrian-Linear-RF-Amplifier-Board-2-3-2-35-GHz-18dBg-24-26V-/223351579252?oid=221556214361
the idea is to use it for ATV to the Es'hail-2 sat one of these days..

You could have got mine. I bought it for AO-40, the one with the strong
elliptical orbit. When it turned out that it would never fly, the
amplifier strip disappeared somewhere in the basement.
One of my worst investments.


I bought mine in 2014, the Es'hail-2 was delayed many times.....
So the thing landed, after testing with a dummy load, in the storage too.


Anyways cellphone tower are sort of interesting in many ways,,,
Maybe even more so now 5G coming.

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